Monday, May 11, 2020
Ernest Hemingway, author of A Farewell to Arms, created a classic but controversial love story banned in Italy as well as parts of the United States, for its candid brutality. While many authors during the Roaring 20s chose to focus on the sacrifices and valor of World War I, Hemingway wrote his novel from a different but realistic perspective. As a World War I veteran himself, Hemingway based his novel off of his experiences in war and from his own life to influence the romantic relationship between Catherine Barkley and Lieutenant Frederic Henry. Choosing to break away from the social norm, Hemingway decided to incorporate literary forms to shed light on important factors individuals during this delicate time period ran from, after aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦She first handily witnessed as well as suffered through pain, but was willing to assist without wasting any time by claiming that she was not qualified to do help. Critic Robert Warren wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"In this novel she emerg es as the truly heroic figure of the book. A model of courage and stoic self-awareness, Catherine is determined to forge a meaningful and orderly existence if only temporarily in a world in which all traditional notions of meaning and order has been shatteredÃ¢â¬ (Warren, Robert). During the delicate time period of his life where vulnerability was high, he experienced losing a dear one close to him throughout his childhood, his father. He along with many others lost the ones they love to a harsh environment known as reality. HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs stated that no one could escape death as nature would destroy all in its path, but one could seek comfort to escape the reality of loss. Through the use of a minor character, Rinaldi, Hemingway was able to depict the sources of comfort individuals turned towards after World War I. Rinaldi, perceived as a competent, good-natured, masculine character who was an unbelievable ladiesÃ¢â¬â¢ man, was seeking a source of comfort from the countless of wounded men he operated throughout the book, Ã¢â¬Å"This war is terrible, Rinaldi said. Come on. We ll both get drunk and be
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Hello there! My name is Clement Benedicts Running or in short you can call me Clement. Clement comes from Latin, which I have made sure of directly from my parents, and has the meaning of mild, good, and merciful. Benedicts comes from Benedict and has a context of being blessed. We will write a custom essay sample on Counseling or any similar topic only for you Order Now Whilst Running is my family name. In the sense of being Curious of where my name came from or even thought of by my parents, I asked my mother once on why she named me Clement Benedicts. My oldest sisters name is Calamine Beatrice, the second being Scholars Benedicts, and hush, to make It rhyme, my mom thought of the name Clement Benedicts. And yes, all of us have the Initial of CB, which Is really adorable. My home country Is In Indonesia, an archipelago In south east of Asia. The one thing IÃ¢â¬â¢m In love with my home country Is Its traditional food; the diversity and variety of the taste reminded me of what home Is like. Rending, one of Indonesian traditional food, was even voted and declared as the best food In the world according to ConnÃ¢â¬â¢s pick of delicious food. Indonesia, in my opinion, is the best place for a luminary travel: the exoticness of street food will definitely blow your mind away. The one thing I also love about my home is country is that it is the place where my families are; being away thousands of miles from my family has jolted me that family is everything and I should always treasure it wherever I am. I chose foothill because of my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendation. He said that the school is located in the foot of a mountain and makes it really cozy for him to study. In love with the weather of mountains, I decided that foothill should be the best place to examine my study. IÃ¢â¬â¢m majoring at business administration right now because I like to study how corporations or firms do their things and how they circulate the economy. I want to transfer to University of Michigan, Ann Arbor to study either business or economy; the reason is that my sister is also there and Eve read that Ann Arbor is one of the best places to be a student which IÃ¢â¬â¢m planning to go there for my winter break. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t really have a dream Job right now, but I do have a dream, that is to travel all ever the world and enjoy everything I see while meeting a lot of people from different countries and also different cultures. Counseling By Clement-Running the sense of being curious of where my name came from or even thought of by my oldest sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Calamine Beatrice, the second being Classics Benedicts, and thus, to make it rhyme, my mom thought of the name Clement Benedicts. And yes, all of us have the initial of CB, which is really adorable. My home country is in Indonesia, an archipelago in south east of Asia. The one thing IÃ¢â¬â¢m in love with my home country is its traditional food; the diversity and variety of the taste reminded me of what home is like. Rending, one of Indonesian traditional food, was even voted and declared as the best food in the world according culinary travel; the exoticness of street food will definitely blow your mind away. The families are; being away thousands of miles from my family has Jolted me that family I donÃ¢â¬â¢t really have a dream Job right now, but I do have a dream, that is to travel all How to cite Counseling, Papers
Thursday, April 30, 2020
Sainsburys and Globalisation Essay Change is taking place in our everyday life as much as the time passes. Technology is growing faster every day with a frustrating rapidity, the environment knows the climate change which our planet is subject, and which also represent its biggest long term challenge. Our companies are trying to follow the change of the world to do not be unstable and their products obsolete.Change is inevitable for every individual and group of individual in the society. Change in behaviour, in the way of thinking, in the way of reacting to issues and so on. Change is the word that guarantees the continuity and sustainability and a long-term survivability. According to Doyle (2002) many factors are affecting the way a business operates. It could be a in a good or a bad way. These happenings are called Ã¢â¬Å"driving forcesÃ¢â¬ . Our assessment consists today on making a business report analysing a particular company Ã¢â¬Å"SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Plc. In this business report we will surely talk about th e kind of driving forces that pushed SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Plc. to change as a first part, we will then have a specific regard on the Globalisation and also analyse how the chosen company is reacting to that change, whether it was an improvement or not in some areas where the company is operating. History of the Company: According to the Official J Sainsbury Website, the company was founded in 1869 in London where it is based and today counts a total of 890 stores including supermarkets and local stores, in The United Kingdom and employs more than 150000 people.Is it the third largest supermarket and hypermarket chain in the country after Tesco and ASDA. The organisation has also a banking and property system of assets. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s knew many transformations on its business strategy as changing their logo in 1999 and slogans in the same year and 2005. The objective is to ensure durable financial returns by proving to its weekly 19 million customers a better customer service every day. Internal and external factors that are affecting the company: Internal factors are the driving force which are under the control of the company and happens into it.It could be anything like changing the organisation machinery and equipment, which is a part of technology, organisational culture, system and way of management, location of the organisation, etc. According to Politi (2007) The external driving forces are for example, the industry where the company is operating and its competition, the economy of the concerned country and its demography, and obviously the political stability is also an important external factor that can affect the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s evolution and decision making.The change will occur to the company whether they are internal or external driving forces. The trick is that the company should react and anticipate properly by showing its flexibility. Let us then make it practical with our SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s case: External factors: According to Taylor (2008) one of the ways to examine the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s External factors is to present a PEST analysis. * Political and legal Factors: SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is facing the huge growth and evolution of the globalisation which also represents an opportunity for the group.The organisation can also penetrate the emerging international market same as what Tesco and Carrefour (a French distributor) did, even if this plans are not in SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s board. The investigation of price fixing between the four biggest brand names in the United Kingdom market can have some negative effect in the industry and for every competitor. It would be leading to lose the brand image that SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is having with their consumers. Moreover, the Government is about to decrease the tax rate from 30 to 28 % which will save a weighty amount of money.SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s has to follow the packaging and labelling rules according to the food and drinks local laws. * Economic Factors: The significant increase of th e food price is due to the global crisis all over the world, which will probably lead to a higher purchase costs for all the companies in the same market than SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s, and in particular SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s itself, which will considerably have an effect on the profit, unless SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s rise up the price of its products but might then lose some existing customers.We also should underline that SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s are also petrol retailer in some of their biggest stores so the increase of the petrol cost will also have an impact on the overall situation of rising prices in SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s. This recent credit crunch can reduce the purchasing power of the population and therefore spend less on expensive and quality brand name products, something that could represent a bigger profit for the firm. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s are also into the financial service with HBOS and the as long as the credit crunch is directly concerning financial institutions it will be hard for Sainsbur yÃ¢â¬â¢s to provide credits. Social and environmental factors: Nowadays people tend to more buy ready easy to cook meals. This represents an opportunity for SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s to enhance and increase its line of this kind of products. People are although looking for healthy and safe food because of the level of overweighed people in the United Kingdom. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs to have some stock up and arrange its products according to the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and good with affordable prices. Many companies are choosing to be social responsible by reducing the CO2 and using energy efficiency.This is not a choice anymore, every single company that have an impact on the environment has to show and prove that they are helping to reduce gas emissions, so therefore Sainsburys is investing more on those kind of issues and opting for Ã¢â¬Å"Green solutionsÃ¢â¬ . Ethics are also anchored in the question of the environment. The customers want to eat healthy and safe and natural food. Organic food and the treatment of animals is surely a point where SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s should be aware of. Its commitment toward its consumers could be jeopardized. * Technological factors:Internet is today one of the main communication tools in the world. It is also used to shop online so SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s are providing to their customers an online shopping service with home delivery so any of the companies that are using Internet are increasing their potential market share and therefore there revenues. A third of the Global British revenue is from the online shopping. Self-checkout machines used my ASDA and Tesco first, became a very useful way for Sainsburys to check their customers out and get the process done faster.It is a revolutionary way to save, space (this kind of machines does not take much space) time and money because it boots the sales and no staff is needed, everything is done by the customers, especially in the 24 hours stores. Even if it is not well-known yet, the R adio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) technology could be very useful and beneficial to the supply chain of Sainsburys because it will be more profitable by not having much inventory. Internal Factors:There are ways to examine the different internal factors that could be affecting an organisation which but we will select the 5 forces and the SWOT analyse to do so with SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 forces analysis: * Competitive Rivalry: The market of the food sector where SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is operating is an almost saturated market with a lot of competitors and more firms are trying to get into it which makes it become even more hard to compete. Even if SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s market share is increasing since restructuring program but they are still have a lot to do to cover the parts behind ASDA and the Leader of the market, Tesco. Barriers for entry: are very high in this industry because it costs a lot and requires a huge investment to face and build a firm in the most sophisticated sector in the United Kingdom, without citing the brand name development which could take years to be done. So therefore, the companies which are already in the market have their place and for the new entrants, it is very difficult to establish themselves. The knowledge of the local community is primordial in this domain and it is a very difficult matter for foreign brands. Threat of substitutes: is very low in the developed markets and starting to be more and more every day in the emerging countries as well because the consumers see it as a necessity. The customers need something else to replace their every week supermarket trolley when it is not available or when they simply want to change. The market is changing and new innovations are taking place to make the Saturday afternoon food shopping a pleasant activity so it is difficult to substitute. * Buyer power: the consumers have a high power imply because there are many suppliers selling almost the same products and people have the choice of a wide range of products. The difference is only made by the value, so the price and quality relationship. Loyalty is also one of the things that a company can benefit from a customer if this person is satisfied, so they are working hard on the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction. Otherwise, the switching cost is low, and could be zero for the consumers. All the business is about the consumers and its needs. Therefore, in a recession time, it could be given more weight and importance in the decision making which will increase their power. Power of supplier: This factor is more delicate to classify it. We can though call it a reciprocal dependency between the firm and its suppliers. Obviously if one of the suppliers are letting you down (which is not in their benefit anyway) the firm can always turn to another of its thousands of suppliers but might lose some customers who are looking for the same quality and the same price and their sales products will be hugely affected. Sometimes the sales volume of the suppliers is depending on the supermarketÃ¢â¬â¢s performance on its products. SWOT analysis: Strengths: Sainsburys has been growing economically continually and regularly for the last 3 years with an average of 7 % per year since 2007. Sainsburys is apparently very well situated in terms of environmental initiatives by dealing with the Fair Trade products (bananas, coffee, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦) moreover; removing the gang master had positive effects on the public, on the consumer brand, green activist and consumers themselves. Sainsburys has clear famous products that increase their sales. According to Dickinson (2008). Ã¢â¬Å"It has been simple for Sainsburys to see uplifts in sales of specific ingredients that have been featured in ad campaigns.Apparently the supermarket had to order nine tons Ã¢â¬â the equivalent of two years supply Ã¢â¬â of nutmeg to meet demand when it appeared in one of Olivers hundred-plus ads * Weaknesses: the fact that Sainsburys have been recently taken over by a Qatari private firm can lead to complications in the management of the company and also lose the consumers loyalties. Sainsburys is not in any other market apart from the United Kingdom one unlike its competitors for example Tesco that is existing in the United State of America.Even though they are recording a growth of 7% per year, it still does not cover the distance between them and the challenger ASDA and the leader TESCO. * Opportunities: the alternative businesses in Banking and Properties that Sainsburys are operating on represent an opportunity of growth and expansion. Online shopping are a huge prospective for the future of the sales in all the businesses, not only for retailers. Sainsburys customers can be delivered at home without having to carry bags and so on which will encourage them to purchase more and boot the sales of the company. Threats: Sainsburys have to continuously invest in the environmental questions withou t having the immediate return. Sainsburys Supply chain is directly affected by the bio-petrol that they are subject; therefore, the customers are the most affected in the increased price of fuel. Like any other big firm, Sainsburys is subject of control in all the areas that involves fair competition, environment participation, recruitment and the employment rights, tax laws and a respect of a certain standard in terms of the quality of the products. How SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s are dealing with the globalisation:SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s had concede a number of factors into the organisation to affect its decision making justifying its change. This same change is also forced essentially from outside the organisation. The external factors are sort of conditioning the internal factors. According to Rigby (2008) one massive factor that is behind all the elements of these influences is the globalisation. It is a phenomenon that has been taking place over the world in the last thirty years. The term of globalisation actually means standardisation around the world of political, economic and socio-cultural norms.It means that the world becomes smaller and trade and communication barriers inexistent. Most of the products that the firm is offering to their customers are not manufactured in the United Kingdom consequently, if there is any issue in the country where that products are produced, it could affect the supply chain of SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Globalisation has many impacts especially in the big firms such as SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s. The company has reacted to it positively in some point and negatively in some other areas.The third biggest supermarket chain has been affect by an IT failure so are giving up the automated systems to get the manual ones back. After the ?140 million losses in 2006, the plan is to get SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s back on the rails again by cutting 750 head office jobs and taking in 3000 people from stores personal on the top of four automated depots. Accenture was the IT consultancy company that designed the Ã¢â¬Å"Business Transformation ProgrammeÃ¢â¬ for SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s to create an competitive advantage over its leaders and make work as efficiently and cost effectively as possible with a ? . 8 million seven years contract. However this IT project has not been a success which leads to a rebuild the IT team and renegotiates the contract. Accenture has gradually kept itself far from the supply chain issues that SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s had and stated that the contract was not stipulating the cover of these areas in case of problems. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s management strategy as responses: The environment: SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is now developing a strategic method by raising the commitment of the staff to meet their goals.The Energy Team are willing to save energy by showing their colleagues some technics to do so and also reduce waste and eliminate it in the long term. This process is into the SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s environmental achievements, and on th e top of it, they are encouraging their employees to be fully involved into a communication process for those employees who agreed to achieve some particular environmental tasks. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s published two Best Practice Guides and distributed it to its managers to organise training and showing examples of responsible practices to employ inside the corporate.The firm is highly committed to the environmental reporting which is within the main part of their strategy. According to According to Shifrin (2008), online sales and reduce the costs of IT made the profit jump. Looking form a globalisation point of view, IT is in the forefront of most of the companies in the business framework by recruiting the new IT Change Director in 2008. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is therefore taking it as an important key success as it is the first time in the company has the IT department director on the operational board.The firm affirms that it will be increasing its online sales by including non-food go od for sale and indeed it did increase the following year by 40% and is aiming to run the online service from 200 stores by 2010 in a vision of a major progress of its internet transactions on all its products. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to effective change in its board: According to Official J SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s PLC Website (2010) In June 2010, SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s has declared changes inside the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s boards. This change is aiming to support the companyÃ¢â¬Ës long term growth strategy and enhancing the teams.Mike Coupe is now a Trading Director will be transferred to the post of Commercial Director on the plc board without losing its duties in the Trading and IT department. Darren Shapland, the financial Chief Officer will be in his turn promoted as Group development Director on the same board than previous colleague, and responsible of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth results in all the branches of the group (SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s bank, Property and SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s). John Roger will be helping him in the operating board having already worked in the Group finance and Director of Corporate Finance during 20 years.In addition to these experienced people, SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s appointed Helen Buck as Convenience Director. She has being recruited in 2005 and held many post of responsibility in the company with more than 30 years experiences in the domain of retail and strategic consulting. Try something new today: According to Andy (2006) This new slogan that SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s has invented in 2006 is to encourage the customers to try something new in their shopping basket. That little extra money that they are going to spend every time they shop allowed them reach the sales led recovery of ? . 5 billion revenue and it generated ? 550 million in two years only. The firm has a very clear target to get the people change their behaviour of shopping through all the networks. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s want to make the customers come to enjoy their food shopping and tast e the difference between its diverse products. This strategy has mainly being relied on TV advertising which lead to an obvious improvement of the results and getting the distance of the market share smaller between them and their competitors ASDA and Tesco. Supply chain :The third biggest supermarket brand name in the United Kingdom has seen its overall profits increasing significally after enhancing their supply chain strategy. The company recorded 2. 9 per cent revenues more than Tesco in terms of total sales including online performance. The supply chain and IT improvements have booted the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s records and leaded it to a continous progress over the time. In 2009, SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s expanded its online services by selling more than 8000 non food products and currently testing Ã¢â¬Å"click and collect methodÃ¢â¬ in few of its stores.With the launch of the shopping from home such as little stores called Local SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s on the top of the very wide range of me rchandises that they sell, they are developing a certain number of supply chain network with its level to cope with the difficulty of the process. Logistic teams are usually responsible of managing the movement of the supply chain. Distribution are taking care of the delivery of good in the stores and physical stock. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s have faith in that in the process of continuous evolution and will bring its fruits over the time. Recommandations:In a globalisation prospective, SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s should seek other international markets in order to gain more market share and increasing their revenues, while Tesco are doing well around the world and operating in 17 countries in three continents. They should also perfectionate their supply chain and the IT governance that seemed to be fragile even though an improvement in the last few years. Increasing the number of stores and seeking new territories where SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s could open new supermarkets and Local SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s. T aking example of its leaders is also a way to improve in many aspect in the company.
Saturday, March 21, 2020
Impact of Marketization on Higher Education in the UK Abstract Impact of Marketization on Higher Education in the UK ). From such perceptions, it is arguably important to note that the theory of marketization explains the fact that through the concept of liberalising an economy all the trade barriers and price controls are significantly removed, which provide space to the various stakeholders to actively engage in ensuring that there is high quality production process. From the perspective of the marketization theory, a number of economies across the globe are calling upon for the deregulation of institutions of higher learning with the aim of making them more competitive within the global market. The 2013 year has been a year of marketization of the higher education system in the UK (Raffe Croxford, 2013). Throughout the 2013, UK developed policies and strategies towards attaining a fully marketised system especially for the higher education sector. Since 2013 UK has developed numerous and possibly effective policies that are aimed at encouraging the expansion of higher education. Expansion of higher education as anticipated by the UK government through development of various policies has the sole objective of increasing participation of all the stakeholders in education (McNeill, 2012). Increased participation of all involved stakeholders in the higher education courtesy of marketization concept results into a more educated workforce, which has actually enabled the UK to experience a growth in its economy. Indeed, marketization of the higher education in UK has offered a perfect ground-breaking insight on how the government policies can be employed towards altering the structures and operations of different institutions for higher learning especially universities and technical colleges (Xue-chao, 2012). The following section provides an empirical review of the previous studies and views of the scholars on the impact of the marketization on higher education with special focus to the UK. Empirical Review Different scholars and researchers have performed evaluation, analysis, and studies on the impact of marketization on higher education in the UK. Brown (2013) conducted a study that aimed at describing the concept of market-based policies with regards to higher education in the UK. In addition, Brown (2013) also aimed at assessing the historical background regarding the current reforms within higher education in UK especially in respect to marketization. The study by Brown (2013) established that there has been an improvement in higher education as seen within the idea of competition, efficiency, responsiveness, as well as innovation courtesy of marketization. From the perspective of the theory of marketization, Brown (2013) argued that marketization has provided the opportunity for different stakeholders other than government to also engage in providing services of education and learning in higher institutions of learning. Therefore, from the study of Brown it is evident that market ization has positive impact on higher education within UK. The other study was performed by Hommel and King (2013) who sought to find out the financial dimension of specific reforms by the government especially in respect to developing an educational sector that is risk-based. From the corporate risk management literature, Hommel and King (2013) found out that business schools, which continues to adopt the risk-based regulations and reforms to meet their objectives and targets with respect to learning process, face a lot of challenges especially in line with managing risks. In this respect, Hommel and King (2013) established the fact that business schools especially within the ranks of universities and other institutions of higher learning should be careful about their financial solvency through effective and efficient maintenance of functioning risks. Hence, on the perspective of the study conducted by Hommel and King (2013), it is evident that in as much as marketization provides some positive impacts there are negative impacts that accrue due to the concept for instance the increase exposure to various financial risks. Natale and Doran (2012) also performed a study on the marketization of education in a bid to identify the ethical dilemma that exists in the same. From the study, it is clear that the marketing of education continues to be epidemic, which calls for the suffusion of both practices and principles of business in the management of higher education. However, Natale and Doran (2012) established in their study that in as much as the higher education is becoming more advanced, efficient, effective, and very competitive, the idea of exposing higher education to marker-based systems has resulted into increased costs of education. As a result, there is a growing ethical concern, that is, even though on one side the higher education sector is becoming more efficient, effective, and competitive, the cost of accessing such higher education has become higher and unattainable since the pricing has been left on market forces. Such views have also been put forward by Tapper (2013), who argue that desp ite positive impacts of marketization on higher education, the market-based systems have exposed the pricing of higher education to market forces, which makes the entire cost expensive. Hence, there is need to identify whether to enhance efficiency at the expense of the cost of providing education. The other study was conducted by Holmwood (2012) with an aim of analysing markets and publics as the new battlegrounds for the sector of higher education across many economies. Holmwood (2012) evaluated the recent policy changes especially started by the British Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government. The policy by the coalition government is a preferred paradigm shift with respect to restructuring and remodelling of the higher education sector. The findings from the study showed that there has been radical and neo-liberal approach towards transforming the higher education sector. So far, the policies developed by the government have been very successful in enhancing the efficiency, effectiveness, and competitiveness of higher education. However, Holmwood (2012) stated in the study that the only problem with transforming higher education sector into a market-based system is the fact that monocultural perspectives are likely to result into value of what is lost. Despite th e problem of monoculture as created by the market-based systems, Holmwood (2012) strongly believe that marketization is indeed a good concept; a view that has also been supported by Nickola et al (2012). Consequently, marketization continues to be a good foundation for changing higher education in the UK. Conclusion The above is a literature review explaining the impacts of marketization on higher education with special focus to the UK. The review contains two main sections, namely, the theoretical review and the empirical review. On the basis of the theoretical review, it is evident that the theory of marketization calls for the removal of the public or government dominance in the running and management of institutions of higher learning. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, the theory of marketization explains that through changing the higher education sector to market-based system, the private sector is highly involved, which results into enhanced efficiency, effectiveness, and competitiveness of the higher institutions of learning. On a different perspective, the empirical review provides an analysis and evaluation of the various findings by different researchers and scholars on the impact of marketization on higher education. From the empirical review, it is clear that whereas there are numerous positive im pacts of marketization on higher education, the concept also has negative impacts on the same sector. List of References Brown, R. 2013, Access to Higher Education: The Shift towards Market-Based Policies in the UK, DICE Report, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 23-27. Holmwood, J. 2012, Markets versus Publics: The New Battleground of Higher Education, Harvard International Review, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 12-15. Hommel, U. King, R. 2013, The emergence of risk-based regulation in higher education, The Journal of Management Development, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 537-547. McNeill, T., 2012, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËDonÃ¢â¬â¢t affect the share priceÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢: social media policy in higher education as reputation management. Research in Learning Technology, vol. 20. Natale, S.M. Doran, C. 2012, Marketization of Education: An Ethical Dilemma, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 187-196. Nickolai, D. H., Hoffman, S. G., Trautner, M. N., 2012, Can a knowledge sanctuary also be an economic engine? The marketization of higher education as institutional boundary work. Sociology Compass, vol. 6, no. 3; Pp. 205-218. Quinlan, K. M., 2014, Everything for sale? The marketisation of UK higher education. By Roger Brown with Helen Carasso. British Journal of Educational Studies, (ahead-of-print), 1-3. Raffe, D., Croxford, L., 2013, How stable is the stratification of higher education in England and Scotland?. British Journal of Sociology of Education, (ahead-of-print), 1-23. Tapper, T., 2013, Roger Brown and H. Carasso: Everything for sale? The marketisation of UK higher education. Higher Education, vol. 66, no. 5; Pp. 641-643. Xue-chao, Y. H. J. M., 2012, Marketization of Higher Education in the UK: The Perspective of Financing [J]. Tsinghua Journal of Education, vol. 3, no. 015.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Importance of the Lotus Flower in Chinese Culture The lotusÃ¢â¬â¢ importance comes from Buddhism, and is one of the eight precious things in Buddhism. The lotus is said to bloom in Beijing on lunar April 8 (the BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s birthday) and lunar January 8 is Lotus Day. A cultural taboo related to the lotus isÃ if a woman sews on lunar Lotus Day, she will have menstrual trouble. The lotus (Ã¨â ®Ã¨Å ±, lin huÃ , Ã¨ ·Ã¨Å ±, hÃ © huÃ ) is known as the gentlemanÃ¢â¬â¢s flower because it grows out from the mud, pure and unstained. The he in a manÃ¢â¬â¢s name indicates he is either a Buddhist or connected to Buddhism. The he in a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s name is a wish that she be pure and respected. Ã¨â ® (lin) sounds similar to Ã¨ ¯ (lin, to bind, connect as in marriage); Ã¦Ëâ¬(lin) means to love while Ã¥ »â° (lin) means modesty; Ã¨ · (hÃ ©)sounds similar to Ã¥âÅ' ( hÃ ©, also, one after another, uninterrupted). trouble. In Buddhism, the Lotus Symbolizes: One who comes out of mire but is not sulliedInwardly empty, outwardly uprightPurityFruit, flower and the stalk of the lotus past, present and future Famous Pictures and Sayings Related to the Lotus Lotus bloom with a leaf and bud means a complete union.Magpie sitting on the stamens of a blown lotus and picking seeds: xiguo may you have the joy (xi) of passing one exam (guo) after another (lian)A boy with a carp (yu) beside a lotus (lian) means may you have abundance (yu) year in and year out (lian).Two lotus blooms or a lotus and a blossom on one stem means wish for shared heart and harmony, because Ã¨ · (hÃ ©) means union.A lotus (which represents a girl) and a fish (symbolizing a boy) means love.Red lotus blossom symbolizes the female genitals, and courtesans were often called red lotus.Lotus stem symbolizes the male genitalsA blue lotus stem (qing) symbolizes cleanliness and modestyLotus symbolizes He Xian-gu.The picture of a man on a boat surrounded by lotus blossoms is writer and philosopher Zhou Dun-yi (1017 to 1073) who liked the flower.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Accounting Fraud, Earnings Manipulation, and Creative Accounting - Research Paper Example financial reporting process, and also put into doubt the role played by management, regulators, auditors, and analysts in preventing accounting fraud. Businesses employ deceptive or fraudulent accounting practices such as creative accounting to match the expectations. Accounting fraud refers to an intentional and inappropriate falsification of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s accounting records such as the stating of sales revenue and/or expenses. Accounting fraud is geared towards making a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial performance (operating profit) appear better than it is. The motivation for misrepresentation of accounting records hinges on the profit motive and sourcing a favorable financing and dodging debt obligations. Companies commit accounting fraud through activities such as failing to record prepaid expenses or other incidental assets, failing to show certain classifications of current assets and/ or liabilities, or collapsing both short-term and long-term debt into a single amount (Jones 3). Overstatement of sales revenue is one of the techniques employed in committing accounting fraud. Overstatement of sales arises from activities such as channel stuffing and delaying recording of products returned by clients. This is directed at avoiding recognition of those offsets against sales revenue within the current year. Other means by which businesses commit accounting fraud include under-recording expenses such as depreciation expense. In some instances, businesses fail to record the cost of goods sold expenses in order to make gross margins appear higher (Rezaee and Riley 82). Similarly, accounting fraud occurs when a business fails to state asset losses that ordinarily should be identified such as uncollectible accounts receivable or not writing down inventory under the lower of cost or market rule. In addition, a business may fail to record the full amount of liability for an expense. Accounting fraud may also feature abuse of corporate funds and overstating of the co rporate assets (Tirole 300). Creative Accounting Creative accounting (aggressive accounting) details accounting practices that are not necessarily considered illegal, but which are potentially misleading to investors and considered as unethical, regardless of the fact that the strategy is well within the letter of the law (Shah, Butt and Tariq 531). The resultant financial statements do not reflect the Ã¢â¬Å"true and fairÃ¢â¬ view of the company accounts. For instance, a firm may want to paint a perception that it is financially stronger whereas it has achieved little or no growth at all. Most businesses use creative accounting to enhance desire for stock issued so as to drive up the value of the shares and amass benefits to the business. Examples of creative accounting include off balance sheet financing, overoptimistic revenue recognition or application of overstated nonrecurring items. Motivations for Accounting Fraud The prominent cited motivations for accounting fraud encom pass the urge to meet internal or external earnings expectations. Thus, there is an attempt to conceal an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s deteriorating financial condition. In addition, financial fraud is motivated by the need to raise a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stock price as well as the urge to bolster a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial performance owing to a pending equity or debt financing. Similarly, accountants engage in financial fraud so as to enhance management compensation based on financial results. The two most common techniques employed in fraudulently misstating the financial statements encompass improper revenue recognition and asset overstatements, primarily by overvaluing the present assets or capitalizing expenses. Other tricks employed in committing financial fraud include understatement of expenses and liabilities,